Publications


List of titles sorted by date
Recycling and Reuse of Materials Arising from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (2017)
A Report by the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning
CSNI Technical Opinion Papers No. 15 (2012)
Ageing Management of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities
核設施除役 (2012)
Chinese translation of Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 89 (2012)
Volume 2012/1
Improving Nuclear Regulation (2011)
NEA Regulatory Guidance Booklets, Volumes 1-14
Cost Estimation for Decommissioning (2010)
An International Overview of Cost Elements, Estimation Practices and Reporting Requirements
Il Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari (2010)
Si può, ed é stato fatto
Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (brochure) (2009)
It can and has been done
Regulating the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (2008)
Relevant Issues and Emerging Practices
Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2006) (2008)
Sixteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2006
Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari (2004)
Si può fare ed è stato fatto
Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Facilities (2004)
It can and has been done
Strategy Selection for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (2004)
Seminar Proceedings, Tarragona, Spain, 1-4 September 2003
Stakeholder Participation in Radiological Decision Making: Processes and Implications (2004)
Case Studies for the Third Villigen Workshop, Villigen, Switzerland, 21-23 October 2003
Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants (2003)
Policies, Strategies and Costs
The Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities (2002)
Status, Approaches, Challenges
Decontamination Techniques Used in Decommissioning Activities (1999)
A Report by the NEA Task Group on Decontaminaton
Recycling and Reuse of Scrap Metals (1996)
A Report by a Task Group of the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

Detailed publication list

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Measuring Employment Generated by the Nuclear Power Sector
English, published: 10/25/18
NEA#7204
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/ndd/pubs/2018/7204-employment-nps.pdf
The nuclear energy sector employs a considerable workforce around the world, and with nuclear power projected to grow in countries with increasing electricity demand, corresponding jobs in the nuclear power sector will also grow. Using the most available macroeconomic model to determine total employment – the "input/output" model – the Nuclear Energy Agency and International Atomic Energy Agency collaborated to measure direct, indirect and induced employment from the nuclear power sector in a national economy. The results indicate that direct employment during site preparation and construction of a single unit 1 000 megawatt-electric advanced light water reactor at any point in time for 10 years is approximately 1 200 professional and construction staff, or about 12 000 labour years. For 50 years of operation, approximately 600 administrative, operation and maintenance, and permanently contracted staff are employed annually, or about 30 000 labour years. For up to 10 years of decommissioning, about 500 people are employed annually, or around 5 000 labour years. Finally, over an approximate period of 40 years, close to 80 employees are managing nuclear waste, totalling around 3 000 labour years. A total of about 50 000 direct labour-years per gigawatt. Direct expenditures on these employees and equipment generate approximately the same number of indirect employment, or about 50 000 labour years; and direct and indirect expenditures generate about the same number of induced employment, or 100 000 labour years. Total employment in the nuclear power sector of a given national economy is therefore roughly 200 000 labour years over the life cycle of a gigawatt of nuclear generating capacity.
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NEA News Vol. 36.1
English, published: 07/27/18
NEA#7430
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/nea-news/2018/36-1/nea-news-36-1.pdf
NEA News is the professional journal of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It features articles on the latest nuclear energy issues concerning the economic and technical aspects of nuclear energy, nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management and decommissioning, radiological protection, nuclear science and nuclear legislation. Each issue provides facts and opinions on nuclear energy, updates on NEA activities, a brief presentation of new NEA publications and other NEA news, along with links to NEA videos.

Topics covered in this issue of NEA News include: Fukushima reconstruction: Society, economy and community; The Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility: A new era in fuel safety research; The Full Costs of Electricity Provision: A new NEA report; Insights into the global uranium market; and Progress towards an all hazards approach to emergency preparedness and response. This edition of NEA News also includes the NEA Director General William D. Magwood, IV's opening remarks at the NEA 60th Anniversary High Level Session in April 2018.

A special thank you to the contributors to this edition of NEA News: David Broussard, David Chichester, Aleshia Duncan, Kentaro Funaki, Luminita Grancea, Olvido Guzman, Colby Jensen, Jan Horst Keppler, Edward Lazo, Vladimir Lebedev, Ichiro Otsuka, Daniel Wachs, Nicolas Woolstenhulme.
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Preparing for Decommissioning during Operation and after Final Shutdown
English, published: 05/25/18
NEA#7374
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/pubs/2018/7374-decom-prep.pdf
The transition from an operating nuclear facility to the decommissioning phase is critical in the life cycle of every facility. A number of organisational and technical modifications are needed in order for the facility to meet new objectives and requirements, and a certain number of activities must be initiated to support the transition and preparation for the dismantling of the facility. Thorough preparation and planning is key for the success of global decommissioning and dismantling projects, both to minimise delays and undue costs and to ensure a safe and efficient decommissioning process.
The aim of this report is to inform regulatory bodies, policy makers and planners about the relevant aspects and activities that should begin during the last years of operation and following the end of operation. Compiling lessons learnt from experiences and good practices in NEA member countries, the report supports the further optimisation of transition strategies, activities and measures that will ensure adequate preparation for decommissioning and dismantling.

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Radiological Characterisation from a Materials and Waste End-State Perspective – Experience from Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities
English, 95 pages, published: 11/02/17
NEA#7373
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/pubs/2017/7373-rad-char-pers.pdf
Radiological characterisation is a key enabling activity for the planning and
implementation of nuclear facility decommissioning. Effective characterisation allows
the extent, location and nature of contamination to be determined and provides
crucial information for facility dismantling, the management of material and waste
arisings, the protection of workers, the public and the environment, and associated
cost estimations.
This report will be useful for characterisation practitioners who carry out tactical
planning, preparation, optimisation and implementation of characterisation to support
the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the management of associated materials
and waste. It compiles recent experience from NEA member countries in radiological
characterisation, including from international experts, international case studies,
an international conference, and international standards and guidance. Using this
comprehensive evidence base, the report identifies relevant good practice and provides
practical advice covering all stages of the characterisation process.
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Addressing Uncertainties in Cost Estimates for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities
English, 66 pages, published: 09/28/17
NEA#7344
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/pubs/2017/7344-uncertainties-decom-cost.pdf
The cost estimation process of decommissioning nuclear facilities has continued to evolve in recent years, with a general trend towards demonstrating greater levels of detail in the estimate and more explicit consideration of uncertainties, the latter of which may have an impact on decommissioning project costs. The 2012 report on the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations, a joint recommendation by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission, proposes a standardised structure of cost items for decommissioning projects that can be used either directly for the production of cost estimates or for mapping of cost items for benchmarking purposes. The ISDC, however, provides only limited guidance on the treatment of uncertainty when preparing cost estimates. Addressing Uncertainties in Cost Estimates for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities, prepared jointly by the NEA and IAEA, is intended to complement the ISDC, assisting cost estimators and reviewers in systematically addressing uncertainties in decommissioning cost estimates. Based on experiences gained in participating countries and projects, the report describes how uncertainty and risks can be analysed and incorporated in decommissioning cost estimates, while presenting the outcomes in a transparent manner.
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Recycling and Reuse of Materials Arising from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
A Report by the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning
English, 69 pages, published: 08/16/17
NEA#7310
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/pubs/2017/7310-recycle-decom.pdf
Large quantities of materials arising from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are non-radioactive per se. An additional significant share of materials is of very low-level or low-level radioactivity and can, after having undergone treatment and a clearance process, be recycled and reused in a restricted or unrestricted way. Recycle and reuse options today provide valuable solutions to minimise radioactive waste from decommissioning and at the same time maximise the recovery of valuable materials. The NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning (CPD) prepared this overview on the various approaches being undertaken by international and national organisations for the management of slightly contaminated material resulting from activities in the nuclear sector. The report draws on CPD member organisations’ experiences and practices related to recycling and reuse, which were gathered through an international survey. It provides information on improvements and changes in technologies, methodologies and regulations since the 1996 report on this subject, with the conclusions and recommendations taking into account 20 years of additional experience that will be useful for current and future practitioners. Case studies are provided to illustrate significant points of interest, for example in relation to scrap metals, concrete and soil.

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Management of Radioactive Waste after a Nuclear Power Plant Accident
English, 225 pages, published: 12/02/16
NEA#7305
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/pubs/2016/7305-mgmt-rwm-npp-2016.pdf
The NEA Expert Group on Fukushima Waste Management and Decommissioning R&D (EGFWMD) was established in 2014 to offer advice to the authorities in Japan on the management of large quantities of on-site waste with complex properties and to share experiences with the international community and NEA member countries on ongoing work at the Fukushima Daiichi site. The group was formed with specialists from around the world who had gained experience in waste management, radiological contamination or decommissioning and waste management R&D after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. This report provides technical opinions and ideas from these experts on post-accident waste management and R&D at the Fukushima Daiichi site, as well as information on decommissioning challenges.
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Financing the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
English, 21 pages, published: 08/18/16
NEA#7326
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/pubs/2016/7326-fin-decom-nf.pdf
Decommissioning of both commercial and R&D nuclear facilities is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, and the largest of such industrial decommissioning projects could command considerable budgets. It is important to understand the costs of decommissioning projects in order to develop realistic cost estimates as early as possible based on preliminary decommissioning plans, but also to develop funding mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. Sound financial provisions need to be accumulated early on to reduce the potential risk for residual, unfunded liabilities and the burden on future generations, while ensuring environmental protection.

Decommissioning planning can be subject to considerable uncertainties, particularly in relation to potential changes in financial markets, in energy policies or in the conditions and requirements for decommissioning individual nuclear installations, and such uncertainties need to be reflected in regularly updated cost estimates.

This booklet offers a useful overview of the relevant aspects of financing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It provides information on cost estimation for decommissioning, as well as details about funding mechanisms and the management of funds based on current practice in NEA member countries.
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Strategic Considerations for the Sustainable Remediation of Nuclear Installations
English, 110 pages, published: 05/23/16
NEA#7290
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/pubs/2016/7290-strategic-considerations.pdf
Nuclear sites around the world are being decommissioned and remedial actions are being undertaken to enable sites, or parts of sites, to be reused. Although such activities are relatively straightforward for most sites, experience has suggested that preventative action is needed to minimise the impact of remediation activities on the environment and the potential burden to future generations. Removing all contamination in order to make a site suitable for any use generates waste and has associated environmental, social and economic drawbacks and benefits. Site remediation should thus be sustainable and result in an overall net benefit.

This report draws on recent experience of NEA member countries in nuclear site remediation during decommissioning in order to identify strategic considerations for the sustainable remediation of subsurface contamination – predominantly contaminated soil and groundwater – to describe good practice, and to make recommendations for further research and development. It provides insights for the decision makers, regulators, implementers and stakeholders involved in nuclear site decommissioning so as to ensure the sustainable remediation of nuclear sites, now and in the future.
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Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants
English, 256 pages, published: 03/02/16
NEA#7201
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/ndd/pubs/2016/7201-costs-decom-npp.pdf
While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe. It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered.
This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries. The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries.

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The Practice of Cost Estimation for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
English, published: 06/01/15
NEA#7237
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/pubs/2015/7237-practice-cost-estimation.pdf
Decommissioning of both commercially used and R&D nuclear facilities is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, and the largest of such industrial decommissioning projects could command considerable budgets. Several approaches are currently being used for decommissioning cost estimations, with an international culture developing in the field. The present cost estimation practice guide was prepared in order to offer international actors specific guidance in preparing quality cost and schedule estimates to support detailed budgeting for decommissioning implementation, for the preparation of decommissioning plans and for the securing of funds. This guide is based on current practices and standards in a number of NEA member countries and aims to help consolidate the practice and process of decommissioning cost estimation so as to make it more widely understood. It offers a useful reference for the practitioner and for training programmes.

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Guide for International Peer Reviews of Decommissioning Cost Studies for Nuclear Facilities
English, 49 pages, published: 10/27/14
NEA#7190
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/pubs/2014/7190-guide-peer-reviews.pdf
Peer reviews are a standard co-operative OECD working tool that offer member countries a framework to compare experiences and examine best practices in a host of areas. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has developed a proven methodology for conducting peer reviews in radioactive waste management and nuclear R&D. Using this methodology, the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee’s Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD) developed the present guide as a framework for decommissioning cost reviewers and reviewees to prepare for and conduct international peer reviews of decommissioning cost estimate studies for nuclear facilities. It includes checklists that will help national programmes or relevant organisations to assess and improve decommissioning cost estimate practices in the future. This guide will act as the NEA reference for conducting such international peer reviews.
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Nuclear Site Remediation and Restoration during Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations
English, 244 pages, published: 08/18/14
NEA#7192
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/pubs/2014/7192-cpd-report.pdf
Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and related remedial actions are currently being undertaken around the world to enable sites or parts of sites to be reused for other purposes. Remediation has generally been considered as the last step in a sequence of decommissioning steps, but the values of prevention, long-term planning and parallel remediation are increasingly being recognised as important steps in the process. This report, prepared by the Task Group on Nuclear Site Restoration of the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning, highlights lessons learnt from remediation experiences of NEA member countries that may be particularly helpful to practitioners of nuclear site remediation, regulators and site operators. It provides observations and recommendations to consider in the development of strategies and plans for efficient nuclear site remediation that ensures protection of workers and the environment.
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R&D and Innovation Needs for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities
English, 314 pages, published: 07/21/14
NEA#7191
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/pubs/2014/7191-rd-innovation-needs.pdf
Nuclear decommissioning activities can greatly benefit from research and development (R&D) projects. This report examines applicable emergent technologies, current research efforts and innovation needs to build a base of knowledge regarding the status of decommissioning technology and R&D. This base knowledge can be used to obtain consensus on future R&D that is worth funding. It can also assist in deciding how to collaborate and optimise the limited pool of financial resources available among NEA member countries for nuclear decommissioning R&D.

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CSNI Technical Opinion Papers No. 15
Ageing Management of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities
English, 40 pages, published: 12/31/12
NEA#6990, ISBN: 978-92-64-99181-1
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/nsd/docs/2012/6990-top-15.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Avis techniques du CSIN n° 15 
- Chinese: 核设施安全委员会技术见解报告 No.15 - 核燃料循环设施老化管理 
Managing the ageing of fuel cycle facilities (FCFs) means, as for other nuclear installations, ensuring the availability of required safety functions throughout their service life while taking into account the changes that occur with time and use. This technical opinion paper identifies a set of good practices by benchmarking strategies and good practices on coping with physical ageing and obsolescence from the facility design stage until decommissioning. It should be of particular interest to nuclear safety regulators, fuel cycle facilities operators and fuel cycle researchers.
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核設施除役
Chinese translation of Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
Chinese, 8 pages, published: 08/31/12
NEA#7126
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2012/nea7126-decommissioning-ch.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Démantèlement des installations nucléaires (brochure) 
- Italian: Il Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
- English: Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (brochure)
- Swedish: Avveckling av kärntekniska anläggningar 
- German: Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen (decommissioning brochure)
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Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 89
Volume 2012/1
English, 240 pages, published: 07/03/12
NEA#7090, ISSN: 0304-341X
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/law/nlb/nlb89.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Bulletin de droit nucléaire n° 89 
The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides subscribers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.

Feature articles in this issue include: "Global nuclear law in the making? Joint exercise of public powers in the nuclear field: the case of the revision of the International Basic Safety Standards", "Italian decommissioning in the post-referendum era", "Through the looking glass: placing India’s new civil liability regime for nuclear damage in context" and "Legal aspects of the control and repression of illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials".
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International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations
English, 192 pages, published: 03/02/12
NEA#7088, ISBN: 978-92-64-99173-6
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2012/ISDC-nuclear-installations.pdf
Cost estimation for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities can vary considerably in format, content and practice both within and across countries. These differences may have legitimate reasons but make the process of reviewing estimates complicated and the estimates themselves difficult to defend. Hence, the joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission (EC) was undertaken to propose a standard itemisation of decommissioning costs either directly for the production of cost estimates or for mapping estimates onto a standard, common structure for purposes of comparison. This report updates the earlier itemisation published in 1999 and takes into account experience accumulated thus far. The revised cost itemisation structure has sought to ensure that all costs within the planned scope of a decommissioning project may be reflected. The report also provides general guidance on developing a decommissioning cost estimate, including detailed advice on using the structure.

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Improving Nuclear Regulation
NEA Regulatory Guidance Booklets, Volumes 1-14
English, 270 pages, published: 05/30/11
NEA#6905, ISBN: 978-92-64-99162-0
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/nsd/docs/2011/cnra-r2011-10.pdf
A common theme throughout the series of NEA regulatory guidance reports, or “green booklets”, is the premise that the fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear facilities are continuously maintained and operated in an acceptably safe manner. In meeting this objective the regulator must bear in mind that it is the operator that has responsibility for safely operating the nuclear facility; the role of the regulator is to assess and to provide assurance regarding the operator’s activities in terms of assuming that responsibility.
The full series of these reports was brought together in one edition for the first time in 2009 and was widely found to be a useful resource. This second edition comprises 14 volumes, including the latest on The Nuclear Regulator's Role in Assessing Licensee Oversight of Vendor and Other Contracted Services. The reports address various challenges that could apply throughout the lifetime of a nuclear facility, including design, siting, manufacturing, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning. The compilation is intended to serve as a knowledge management tool both for current regulators and the new nuclear professionals and organisations entering the regulatory field.

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Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen (decommissioning brochure)
Machbar und gemacht.
German, published: 09/21/10
NEA#6922
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2010/nea6822-stilllegung-planche.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Démantèlement des installations nucléaires (brochure) 
- Italian: Il Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
- English: Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (brochure)
- Swedish: Avveckling av kärntekniska anläggningar 
- Chinese: 核設施除役
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Decommissioning Considerations for New Nuclear Power Plants
English, 16 pages, published: 06/07/10
NEA#6833, ISBN: 978-92-64-99132-3
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2010/nea6833-decommissioning-considerations.pdf
Experience from decommissioning projects suggests that the decommissioning of nuclear power plants could be made easier if this aspect received greater consideration at the design stage and during operation of the plants. Better forward planning for decommissioning results in lower worker doses and reduced costs. When appropriate design measures are not taken at an early stage, their introduction later in the project becomes increasingly difficult. Hence, their early consideration may lead to smoother and more effective decommissioning operations. This report provides an overview of key decommissioning issues which are useful to consider when designing new nuclear power plants.
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Cost Estimation for Decommissioning
An International Overview of Cost Elements, Estimation Practices and Reporting Requirements
English, 80 pages, published: 05/17/10
NEA#6831, ISBN: 978-92-64-99133-0
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2010/nea6831-cost-estimation-decommissioning.pdf
This report is based on a study carried out by the NEA Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG) on decommissioning cost elements, estimation practices and reporting requirements. Its findings indicate that cost methodologies need to be updated continuously using cost data from actual decommissioning projects and hence, systematic approaches need to be implemented to collect these data. The study also concludes that changes in project scope may have the greatest impact on project costs. Such changes must therefore be identified immediately and incorporated into the estimate. Finally, the report notes that more needs to be done to facilitate the comparison of estimates, for example by providing a reporting template for national estimates.
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Applying Decommissioning Experience to the Design and Operation of New Nuclear Power Plants
English, 56 pages, published: 04/21/10
NEA#6924, ISBN: 978-92-64-99118-7
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2010/nea6924-applying-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Intégration du retour d'expérience du démantèlement à la conception et l'exploitation des futures centrales nucléaires 
Experience from decommissioning projects suggests that the decommissioning of nuclear power plants could be made easier if it received greater consideration at the design stage and during the operation of the plants. Better forward planning for decommissioning results in lower worker doses and reduced costs. When appropriate design measures are not taken at an early stage, their introduction later in the project becomes increasingly difficult. Hence, their early consideration may lead to smoother and more effective decommissioning.

It is now common practice to provide a preliminary decommissioning plan as part of the application for a licence to operate a nuclear facility. This means, in turn, that decommissioning issues are being considered during the design process. Although many design provisions aiming at improved operation and maintenance will be beneficial for decommissioning as well, designers also need to consider issues that are specific to decommissioning, such as developing sequential dismantling sequences and providing adequate egress routes. These issues and more are discussed in this report.
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Il Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
Si può, ed é stato fatto
Italian, 8 pages, published: 04/03/10
NEA#6955
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2010/nea6955-Decommissioning-brochure-ITA.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (brochure)
- Français: Démantèlement des installations nucléaires (brochure) 
- German: Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen (decommissioning brochure)
- Swedish: Avveckling av kärntekniska anläggningar 
- Chinese: 核設施除役
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Towards Greater Harmonisation of Decommissioning Cost Estimates
English, 16 pages, published: 03/22/10
NEA#6867, ISBN: 978-92-64-99093-7
Volume of the series: Radioactive Waste Management
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2010/nea6867-harmonisation.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Vers une harmonisation des estimations des coûts du déclassement 
Currently, the format, content and practice of cost estimation vary considerably both within and between countries, which makes it very difficult to compare estimates, even for similar types of facilities. The reasons are largely due to different legal requirements in different countries and to historical custom and practice, leading to variations in basic assumptions such as the anticipated decommissioning strategy and end state of the site, and to different approaches to dealing with uncertainties. While attaining harmonisation across national approaches to cost estimation may be difficult to achieve, standardising the way decommissioning cost estimates are structured and reported will give greater transparency to the decommissioning process and will help build regulator and stakeholder confidence in the cost estimates and schedules.

This booklet highlights the findings of the NEA Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG) which recently studied cost estimation practices in 12 countries.

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Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (brochure)
It can and has been done
English, 8 pages, published: 10/23/09
NEA#6829
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2009/nea6829-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Italian: Il Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
- German: Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen (decommissioning brochure)
- Swedish: Avveckling av kärntekniska anläggningar 
- Français: Démantèlement des installations nucléaires (brochure) 
- Chinese: 核設施除役
Considerable international experience gained over the last 20 years demonstrates that nuclear facilities can be safely dismantled and decommissioned once a decision is made to cease operations and permanently shut them down. This brochure looks at decommissioning across a spectrum of nuclear facilities and shows worldwide examples of sucessful projects.
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Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 83 (June 2009)
English, 200 pages, published: 08/04/09
NEA#6812, ISSN: 0304-341X
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/law/nlb/nlb83.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Bulletin de droit nucléaire n° 83 (Juin 2009) 
Considered to be the standard reference work for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law, the Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication providing its subscribers with up-to-date information on all major developments falling within the domain of nuclear law. Published twice a year in both English and French, it covers legislative developments in almost 60 countries around the world as well as reporting on relevant jurisprudence and administrative decisions, international agreements and regulatory activities of international organisations.

Feature articles in this issue address “The Review Conference Mechanism in Nuclear Law: Issues and Opportunities”, “National Implementation and Enforcement of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaties” and “The Decommissioning of Asse II – Burden of the Past in the Federal Republic of Germany".

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Release of Radioactive Materials and Buildings from Regulatory Control
A Status Report
English, 72 pages, published: 11/19/08
NEA#6403, ISBN: 978-92-64-99061-6
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2008/nea6403-regulatory.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Libération des matériaux et bâtiments radioactifs du contrôle réglementaire 
The radiological concept of clearance can be defined as the release of radioactive materials or buildings from any further regulatory control applied for radiological protection purposes by the competent body. It is generally based on the assumption that, following clearance, any potential radiological exposure of the public will be trivial.

Clearance is now a mature concept being used for the management of large amounts of radioactive materials (including metals, building rubble, cables and plastics) and disused buildings associated with a controlled nuclear activity. There are, however, differences in the ways in which clearance is dealt with in the regulatory frameworks of various countries and the ways in which clearance has been implemented in diverse decommissioning projects.

This report provides up-to-date information on an array of national approaches to clearance. It should be of particular help to those planning the implementation of a clearance procedure, such as that for decommissioning a nuclear facility.
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Nuclear Energy Outlook (NEO)
English, 460 pages, published: 11/13/08
NEA#6436, ISBN: 978-92-64-05410-3
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/pub/2008/6436-nuclear-energy-outlook-2008.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Perspectives de l'énergie nucléaire 
- Japanese: Nuclear Energy Outlook - 2008 (Japanese version) 
This Nuclear Energy Outlook (NEO) is the first of its kind and responds to the renewed interest in nuclear energy by many OECD member countries. World energy demand continues to grow unabated and is leading to very serious concerns about security of supply, soaring energy prices and climate change stemming from fossil fuel consumption. Nuclear energy is being increasingly seen as having a role to play in addressing these concerns.

This Outlook uses the most current data and statistics available and provides projections up to 2050 to consider growth scenarios and potential implications on the future use of nuclear energy. It also offers unique analyses and recommendations on the possible challenges that lie ahead.

Topics covered by the NEO include nuclear power’s current status and projected trends, environmental impacts, uranium resources and security of supply, costs, safety and regulation, radioactive waste management and decommissioning, non-proliferation and security, legal frameworks, infrastructure, stakeholder engagement, advanced reactors and advanced fuel cycles.
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Regulating the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
Relevant Issues and Emerging Practices
English, 84 pages, published: 09/25/08
NEA#6401, ISBN: 978-92-64-99059-3
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2008/ne6401-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Dispositions réglementaires pour le déclassement des installations nucléaires 
The removal of fuel from a permanently shutdown nuclear facility eliminates the major source of radiological hazard, a nuclear criticality. Combined with the cessation of operations at high temperatures and pressures, the risk to public health and to the environment is thereby very significantly reduced. The process of decommissioning does however necessitate processes involving both conventional and radiological hazards such as the cutting and dismantling of structures, plant and equipment and the use of explosive cutting techniques. Some radiological hazards remain because of the possibility of coming into contact with radioactively contaminated or activated material.

This report considers how regulatory arrangements are being adapted to the continuously changing environment, and associated risk levels in a nuclear facility that is being decommissioned. It uses examples of current practices in several countries with large decommissioning programmes to illustrate emerging regulatory trends.
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Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2006)
Sixteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2006
English, 120 pages, published: 02/14/08
NEA#6318, ISBN: 978-92-64-99042-5
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rp/pubs/2008/6318-isoe.pdf
The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. ISOE provides experts in occupational radiological protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. A total of 71 utilities in 29 countries participate in the programme as well as the regulatory authorities of 25 countries. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from 401 operating commercial nuclear power plants (representing about 91% of the world's total operating commercial reactors), as well as 80 units undergoing decommissioning.

The Sixteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2006 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described.

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Stakeholder Involvement in Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities
International Lessons Learnt
English, 40 pages, published: 06/14/07
NEA#6320, ISBN: 978-92-64-99011-1
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2007/nea6320-stakeholder.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Implication des parties prenantes dans le déclassement des installations nucléaires 
Significant numbers of nuclear facilities will need to be decommissioned in the coming decades. In this context, NEA member countries are placing increasing emphasis on the involvement of stakeholders in the associated decision procedures. This study reviews decommissioning experience with a view to identifying stakeholder concerns and best practice in addressing them. The lessons learnt about the end of the facility life cycle can also contribute to better foresight in siting and building new facilities. This report will be of interest to all major players in the field of decommissioning, in particular policy makers, implementers, regulators and representatives of local host communities.

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The NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning
A Decade of Progress
English, 96 pages, published: 12/20/06
NEA#6185, ISBN: 92-64-02332-1
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2006/nea6185-decommissioning.pdf
The NEA Co-operative Programme for the Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information Concerning Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Projects (CPD) is a joint undertaking which functions within the framework of an agreement between 21 organisations actively executing or planning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The objective of the CPD is to acquire and share information from operational experience in the decommissioning of nuclear installations that is useful for future projects. The information exchange also ensures that best international practice is made widely available and encourages the application of safe, environmentally friendly and cost-effective methods in all decommissioning projects. By the end of 2006, the Programme scope included 26 reactors, 8 reprocessing plants and 8 fuel facility projects.

This report describes the progress made and the main results obtained by the CPD during 1995-2005. Although part of the information exchanged within the CPD is confidential and restricted to programme participants, experience of general interest gained under the programme’s auspices is released for broader use. Such information is brought to the attention of all NEA members through regular reports to the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), as well as through experience summary documents such as this report. The RWMC Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD) is grateful to the CPD for sharing the experience from its important work.
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Radioactivity Measurements at Regulatory Release Levels
A Task Group Report
English, 96 pages, published: 12/04/06
NEA#6186, ISBN: 92-64-02319-4
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2006/nea6186-release.pdf
The release of radioactive materials from regulatory control is subject to release limits which are often based on published recommendations of international organisations, which aim to minimise radiological risks. The application of the recommendations has thus led to limits being set at very low activity levels. Adequate methods of measurement must be available to demonstrate or verify that the activity levels are lower than the recommended values. Measurements would also have to be made under practical industrial conditions, where various constraints could significantly influence the results. Hence, the costs of activity measurements at extremely low levels on large quantities of equipment with complex geometries could be prohibitively high.

The NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning (CPD) established a special Task Group to study these issues in an analytical and structured manner. This report describes the group’s findings regarding the objectives and methodology for radiological characterisation and the equipment used for measurements. The report also contains case studies from NEA member countries and a critical discussion of different methods and techniques.
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Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties
A Status Report
English, 44 pages, published: 10/23/06
NEA#5996, ISBN: 92-64-02312-7
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2006/nea5996-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Financement du démantèlement : éthique, mise en œuvre, incertitudes 
This status report on Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties is based on a review of recent literature and materials presented at NEA meetings in 2003 and 2004, and particularly at a topical session organised in November 2004 on funding issues associated with the decommissioning of nuclear power facilities. The report also draws on the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD).

This report offers, in a concise form, an overview of relevant considerations on decommissioning funding mechanisms with regard to ethics, implementation and uncertainties. Underlying ethical principles found in international agreements are identified, and factors influencing the accumulation and management of funds for decommissioning nuclear facilities are discussed together with the main sources of uncertainties of funding systems.
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Selecting Strategies for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
A Status Report
English, 44 pages, published: 10/02/06
NEA#6038, ISBN: 92-64-02305-4
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2006/nea6038-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Choisir des stratégies de démantèlement des installations nucléaires 
This status report on Selecting Strategies for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities is based on the viewpoints and materials presented at a seminar held in Tarragona, Spain on 1-4 September 2003 as well as the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD). It identifies, reviews and analyses factors influencing decommissioning strategies and addresses the challenges associated with balancing these factors in the process of strategy selection. It gives recognition to the fact that, in addition to technical characteristics, there are many other factors that influence the selection of a decommissioning strategy and that cannot be quantified, such as policy, regulatory and socio-economic factors and aspects that reach far into the future. Uncertainties associated with such factors are a challenge to those who have to take decisions on a decommissioning strategy.

Potentially interested groups of readers are regulators, implementers, R&D experts and policy makers dealing with decommissioning and dismantling issues as well as politicians, decision makers and the general public.
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Releasing the Sites of Nuclear Installations
A Status Report
English, 36 pages, published: 09/27/06
NEA#6187, ISBN: 92-64-02307-0
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2006/nea6187-release.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Libération des sites des installations nucléaires 
Releasing the site of a nuclear installation from radiological control is usually one of the last steps of decommissioning. To date, site release has been practised in a limited number of cases only as most decommissioning projects have not yet advanced to a state where the release of the site is imminent or because the site will continue to be used for nuclear activities. Therefore, for a number of decommissioning projects where planning for site release will soon start, this status report provides useful considerations based on NEA member country experience and expert advice.

In addition to describing the basic considerations which must be taken into account when deciding on the release of a site, the status report provides guidance on establishing release criteria. The report also addresses site release implementation, measurement techniques and underground contamination. It will be of particular interest to regulators, implementers, R&D experts and policy makers dealing with decommissioning and dismantling issues.

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Achieving the Goals of the Decommissioning Safety Case
A Status Report
English, 40 pages, published: 12/30/05
NEA#5417, ISBN: 92-64-01068-8
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2005/nea5417-decom.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Vers la réalisation d'un dossier de sûreté de démantèlement 
The key issue in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities is the progressive removal of hazards, by stepwise decontamination and dismantling activities that have to be carried out safely and within the boundaries of an approved safety case. The decommissioning safety case is a collection of arguments and evidence to demonstrate the safety of a decommissioning project. The safety case involves analysing the hazards and the separate stages required for hazard reduction. This status report, drawn from the activities of the OECD/NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD), will be helpful to individuals and organisations involved in the preparation of a decommissioning safety case.

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Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
Si può fare ed è stato fatto
Italian, 8 pages, published: 09/30/04
NEA#5868
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2004/nea5868-decom-italian.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Facilities
Una delle preoccupazioni più diffuse in tema di produzione di energia elettrica da fonte nucleare è che la disattivazione degli impianti nucleari - ovvero il loro smantellamento fino allo stato finale desiderato - costitusica une problema insomontabile. L'esperienza internazionale dimostra invece che non è cosi. La presente pubblicazione presenta una rassegna di progetti di disattivazione di installazioni nucleari di diverso tipo realizaati con successo in tutto il mondo.
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Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Facilities
It can and has been done
English, published: 08/25/04
NEA#5728
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2004/nea5728-decom.pdf

Other language(s):
- Italian: Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
One concern commonly expressed about electricity production from nuclear power is that the decommissioning (i.e.dismantling to a desirable end state) of the redundant radioactive facilities presents a significant problem. In fact, international experience shows that this is not the case. This brochure looks at decommissioning across the spectrum of nuclear power facilities and shows worldwide examples of successful projects.
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Strategy Selection for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
Seminar Proceedings, Tarragona, Spain, 1-4 September 2003
English, 272 pages, published: 07/16/04
NEA#5300, ISBN: 92-64-01671-6
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/pubs/2004/5300-strategy-selection.pdf
As modern nuclear power programmes mature and large, commercial nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities approach the end of their useful life by reason of age, economics or change of policy on the use of nuclear power, new challenges associated with decommissioning and dismantling come to the fore. Politicians and the public may expect there to be a "right answer" to the choice of strategy for a particular type of facility, or even all facilities. Both this seminar and wider experience show that this is not the case.

Local factors and national political positions have a significant input and often result in widely differing strategy approaches to broadly similar decommissioning projects. All facility owners represented at the seminar were able to demonstrate a rational process for strategy selection and compelling arguments for the choices made. In addition to the papers that were presented, these proceedings include a summary of the discussions that took place.
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Stakeholder Participation in Radiological Decision Making: Processes and Implications
Case Studies for the Third Villigen Workshop, Villigen, Switzerland, 21-23 October 2003
English, 104 pages, published: 05/28/04
NEA#5410, ISBN: 92-64-02065-9
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rp/pubs/2004/5410-stakeholder.pdf
Within the radiological protection community, stakeholder issues have moved steadily to the forefront of policy discussions, and clearly form a key element in decisions regarding the development and implementation of radiological protection policy. It was in this light that the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) undertook three case studies on stakeholder involvement processes and experiences. Experience and lessons were analysed and extracted that may have application to numerous situations in other national contexts. They are intended to aid decision makers and regulators who are involved in radiological protection, and may have particular value for post-accident contamination situations, the siting of new nuclear installations, the management of emissions from routine operations at nuclear facilities, and the decommissioning of existing nuclear installations.

The three case studies presented in this report were specifically developed as input to the Third Villigen Workshop (Villigen, Switzerland, 21-23 October 2003) and address the following situations:

- The Canadian review process for uranium production projects in Northern Saskatchewan;
- the Rocky Flats controversy on radionuclide action levels;
- the ETHOS project for post-accident rehabilitation in the area of Belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster.

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Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants
Policies, Strategies and Costs
English, 108 pages, published: 08/11/03
NEA#3590, ISBN: 92-64-10431-3
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/ndd/pubs/2003/3590-decommissiong-npps.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Démantèlement des centrales nucléaires 
The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a topic of increasing interest to governments and the industry as many nuclear units approach retirement. It is important in this context to assess decommissioning costs and to ensure that adequate funds are set aside to meet future financial liabilities arising after nuclear power plants are shut down. Furthermore, understanding how national policies and industrial strategies affect those costs is essential for ensuring the overall economic effectiveness of the nuclear energy sector.

This report, based upon data provided by 26 countries and analysed by government and industry experts, covers a variety of reactor types and sizes. The findings on decommissioning cost elements and driving factors in their variance will be of interest to analysts and policy makers in the nuclear energy field.
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The Regulatory Challenges of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors
English, 32 pages, published: 04/30/03
NEA#4375, ISBN: 92-64-02120-5
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/nsd/reports/nea4375-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Les autorités de sûreté face au démantèlement des réacteurs nucléaires 
Each nuclear power plant, fuel cycle facility and nuclear research and test facility that is operating today will eventually reach the end of its useful life and cease operation. During the period of its decommissioning, it is important to properly manage the health and environmental hazards and physical protection measures of the shutdown facility in order to protect the health and safety of the public and workers and to safeguard any nuclear materials. In this regard, the nuclear safety regulatory body is responsible for independently assuring that decommissioning activities are conducted safely, that radioactive materials and spent nuclear fuel are disposed of properly and that the site is in an acceptable end state.

The purpose of this report is to describe the broad range of safety, environmental, organisational, human factors and public policy issues that may arise during the decommissioning of nuclear reactors and that the regulatory body should be prepared to deal with in the framework of its national regulatory system. The intended audience is primarily nuclear regulators, although the information and ideas may also be of interest to government authorities, environmental regulators, nuclear operating organisations, technical expert organisations and the general public.

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The Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities
Status, Approaches, Challenges
English, 52 pages, published: 09/13/02
NEA#3714, ISBN: 92-64-18488-0
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/2002/3714-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Italian: Dissattivazione e Smantellamento degli Impianti Nucleari 
This report, intended for a broad readership, provides a concise overview of the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities and associated issues in NEA Member countries. It draws upon a database of fact sheets produced to a standard format by individual Member countries that is accessible online from the NEA website.
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Environmental Remediation of Uranium Production Facilities
A Joint NEA/IAEA Report
English, 350 pages, published: 02/14/02
NEA#3033, ISBN: 92-64-19509-2
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/ndd/pubs/2002/3033-environmental-remediation.pdf

Other language(s):
- Francais: Réaménagement de l'environnement des sites de production d'uranium 
Environmental remediation activities in uranium mines and mills have become increasingly important in the last few decades due to the large number of facilities which have been taken out of operation, the growing interest in remediating previously abandoned sites and the increasingly strict environmental regulations that are being put in place. Remediation programmes are being implemented to ensure the return of affected areas to previously existing environmental conditions or to a land use that will be sustainable in the long term and acceptable to all stakeholders.

This report provides a summary of the most relevant issues and practices in remediation programmes or uranium production facilities and an overview of activities and plans in reporting countries. It covers the areas of site characterisation, dismantling and decommissioning, waste management facilities, water remediation, long-term stewardship and monitoring, policies and regulations, and costs. The country profiles of remediation activities and plans include information considered to be important by the country and are based on survey responses provided by 22 countries (12 OECD and 10 non-OECD countries).

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Environmental Activities in Uranium Mining and Milling
A Joint NEA/IAEA Report
English, 174 pages, published: 01/01/99
NEA#766, ISBN: 92-64-17064-2
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/ndd/pubs/1999/766-environmental-activities.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Aspects environnementaux de la production d'uranium 

Environmental activities in uranium mining and milling are becoming increasingly important owing to:

- the stricter requirements for new facilities being imposed by many countries in the form of environmental clearance approvals;
- the large number of uranium production facilities which have been taken out of operation recently; and
- the restoration and reclamation measures that are being considered for many old sites which have been closed permanently.

This book provides an overview of environmental activities related to uranium production based on survey responses from 29 countries. It discusses environmental and safety activities related to the closure and remediation of formerly utilised sites; the operation, monitoring and control of producing sites; and the planning, licensing and authorisation of new facilities. It provides an overview of the reported interests of specialists working in the field, including sensitivity of ecosystems, environmental impact assessment, emissions to air and water, work environment, radiation safety, waste handling and disposal, mine and mill decommissioning and site restoration, and the regulation of these activities.
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Decontamination Techniques Used in Decommissioning Activities
A Report by the NEA Task Group on Decontaminaton
English, 52 pages, published: 01/01/99
NEA#1707
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/1999/decontec.pdf

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Future Financial Liabilities of Nuclear Activities
English, 97 pages, published: 01/01/96
NEA#14, ISBN: 92-64-14795-0
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/ndd/reports/1996/future_financial_liabilities.PDF
This publication is the first comprehensive international review of the policies and schemes in place in NEA countries for recognising, reporting and funding financial liabilities arising from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The nuclear activities considered include uranium mining and milling, fuel-cycle service supply, power generation, reprocessing, waste management, research centres and isotope production.

Policy makers from governmental agencies and electricity utilities, in particular, will find results, conclusions and recommendations which will be useful to them given the current trend towards privatising and liberalising the electricity sector.
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NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning (The): The First Ten Years 1985-95
English, published: 01/01/96
NEA#96
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/1996/decommissioning.pdf
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Recycling and Reuse of Scrap Metals
A Report by a Task Group of the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning
English, published: 01/01/96
NEA#149
Available online at: http://db.nea.fr/rwm/reports/1996/recycling.pdf